National Center for Hydrology and Meteorology


The Cryosphere Services Division (CSD) is mandated to study and monitor cryosphere (snow, glaciers, glacier lakes) and its associated risks to implement appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures.


a.    Prepare plans and programs related to cryosphere (snow, glaciers, glacier lakes) monitoring
b.    Time series monitoring of glaciers and glacial lakes
c.    Operation of snow and glacier monitoring networks in coordination with other divisions of the Center;
d.    Maintain National Cryosphere Database (Cryosphere Information Hub);
e.    Assess risk associated with Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) and melt contribution from glacier and snow to the surface runoff;
f.    Coordinate with national agencies related to snow and glacier monitoring and data collection;
g.    Foster collaboration with regional and international institutions/agencies involved in the field of cryosphere research and data sharing through the head of agency;
h.    Provide professional and technical services to the Center/other agencies on conceptual and methodological aspects of cryosphere monitoring and related studies.


Cryosphere Services Division (HSD) has three Sections as follows:
a.    Cryosphere Monitoring and Survey Section (CMSS)
b.    Cryosphere Hazard Assessment and Prediction Section (CHAPS)
c.    Cryosphere Information & Management Section (CIMS)

Functions of Cryosphere Monitoring & Survey Section (CMSS)

a.    Establish and operate benchmark glacier monitoring stations for status of the glaciers (mass balance, terminus activity, glacier surface activity, glacier dynamics including flow velocity and ice thickness) using conventional, Unmanned Aircraft System, Ice-Radar and geodetic methods. 
b.    Establish and operate research based/time bound snow monitoring stations
c.    Preparing glacier inventory and regular updating;
d.    Conduct research on melt contribution to surface runoff from snow and glacier;
e.    Plan and implement research activities on glaciers and snow monitoring.

Functions of Cryosphere Hazard Assessment & Prediction Section (CHAPS)

a.    Carry out Time Series Monitoring of glacial lakes, asses associated risk and implement appropriate mitigation/adaptation measures.
b.    Coordinate with national line agencies pertaining to snow and glacier hazards and risk assessment
c.    Preparing and updating of GLOF hazard/vulnerability maps in selected basins in collaboration with other divisions and related agencies.
d.    Plan and carryout research activities pertaining to GLOF and related Hazard

Functions of Cryosphere Information & Management Section (CIMS)

a.    Compile and archive up to date cryosphere data. 
b.    Maintaining updated inventories on snow, glacier, and glacial Lake and make timely publication.
c.    Compilation and archiving of reports, data and publications related to cryosphere
d.    Data ingestion and operation of Cryosphere Information Hub-linked with NCHM web-server.
e.    Data processing and analysis to generate reliable information (long term goal)
f.    Provide cryosphere data and information for end users